Conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE): Your conventional engines, powered by gasoline, diesel, biofuels or even natural gas. These make up the bulk of the vehicles on the road, and you are likely very familiar with them. While today's ICEs are significantly more efficient and have lower emissions than those from decades ago, the fundamental technology — burning fuel to create power — remains the same.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV): The battery replenishes itself via energy generated by the ICE as well as regenerative braking (a unique technique used in EV’s to capture its kinetic energy that would have been wasted when the vehicle decelerates or comes to a standstill while braking). The addition of the batteries provides a very efficient means of getting the vehicle moving which consumes a significant amount of fuel.
Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV): This type of EV is powered by both gasoline and electricity. Compared to a standard hybrid, however, a PHEV — as the name suggests — may be plugged into an outlet or charging station to recharge the on-board battery. Additionally, this type of vehicle usually possesses the ability to run solely on battery power, solely on gas, or a combination of both, providing an extended range of the vehicle to travel on a fueling.
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV): Referred to at times as a Full Electric vehicle, only batteries power these vehicles; the only way to recharge them is to plug them into an electrical outlet. Though very efficient to operate, the range of these vehicles currently sits between 150 miles and 300 miles per charge. There are three levels of charger — 1, 2, and 3. The higher the number the faster the capability to recharge and the more expensive the charger and electricity. This link will help you better understand the intricacies of the different EV Chargers.
As you can see, going electric will be a change for your organization and will require not only participation from your Fleet team but Budget and Operations as well.
For additional information on Electric Vehicles, please visit the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) website.