Air, indoor dust, food, drinking water and various consumer products.
Studies have also indicated that crops grown on contaminated soils can accumulate perfluorinated compounds, suggesting that this may also be a source of human exposure.
The greatest source of exposure to PFOA and PFOS for children is hand-to-mouth activities from treated carpets.
In 2006, the U.S. EPA and eight major manufacturers announced a voluntary phase-out for one perfluorinated compound (PFOA), with a 95 percent use reduction by 2010 and elimination of all uses by 2015. In 2012, companies that manufacture perfluorinated compounds began voluntarily phasing them out of production.