(Onopordum acanthium or o. tauricum)
Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium or a. tauricum) is a non-native biennial forb that reproduces solely by seed. A biennial is a plant that completes its life cycle within two years. During the first year of growth, Scotch thistle appears as a rosette in spring or fall. Rosettes can be 1 to 2 feet in diameter. During the second year in mid to late spring the stem bolts, flowers, sets seed, and the plant dies. A prolific seed producer, Scotch thistle can produce up to 14,000 seeds per plant.