Musk Thistle Biocontrol
What is Musk Thistle?
Musk thistle or nodding thistle (Carduus nuttans) is a biennial forb in the Aster family. It was introduced to North America from southern Europe and western Asia in the early 19th century. Since this time is has become invasive across North America and is classified as a noxious weed in many states including Colorado.
How do I Recognize Musk Thistle?
Musk thistle spends its first year after germination as a rosette. Its leaves are deeply lobed and spiky with sharp spiny tips. They are dark green in color with whitish spines at the tips of the lobes. It can grow from 1 to 1.5 meters tall in its second year of growth when it bolts. After bolting it bears large showy purple flowers 3-5 cm. in diameter. Each flower contains many large spear shaped bracts where they attach to the stem. When the flower heads complete maturation they droop or “nod” distinctively from the stem lending the frequently used common name of nodding thistle.
What Makes it Weedy?
Musk thistle is weedy because it forms a dense monoculture by out competing native grasses and forbs. It tends to thrive in disturbed habitats where resources are limited and native plants cannot establish or grow as well. Once the plant establishes it can easily spread with each flower head producing up to 1200 seeds that may last in the soil up to ten years.
Biological Control of Musk Thistle
Currently there is one biological control agent released by the Insectary for control of musk thistle, the Musk Thistle Rosette Weevil or Crown Weevil, Trichosirocalus horridus. This weevil develops in the crown of the musk thistle rosette. Damage by the weevil occurs in the developing tissue of the plant, stunting its growth as well as reducing the number of stems it can produce. A distinctive yellowing of the stem and foliage is observable as weevil damage accumulates.
Life Stages of the Musk Thistle Rosette Weevil
Adults emerge from overwintering in March and April. These adults lay eggs on the thistle rosettes. As the eggs hatch larvae of the weevil begin feeding in the center of the rosette for approximately seven weeks. The larvae leave the rosette for pupation in the soil near the plant which takes 12 to 20 days. The first new adults of the summer emerge by late June through early July in CO. This generation may produce a second generation that overwinter as eggs, larvae or pupae.
How Long Will They Take?
Like most biocontrol agents, musk thistle weevils will not eradicate an infestation of musk thistle. Instead they are capable of reducing the density of the target weed over a prolonged period of time, typically two to three years minimum. Reductions in your musk thistle infestation will take patience when these weevils are used as the sole means of control. Other IPM (integrated pest management) tactics are recommended including mechanical removal of the plant by pulling or mowing prior to the development of mature seed heads. Herbicides may also be helpful but are not recommended in concordance with the release of weevils, as these insects may be sensitive to certain chemicals and or plant damage caused by herbicide application.
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