Disease Information and Brochures

Below are some resource materials for just a few of the diseases tested at the Rocky Mountain Regional Animal Health Laboratory. Each of the brochures are available for download in a PDF format.

Picture of Bovine Leukosis Virus Brochure Cover

Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV)

Bovine leukosis virus is a retrovirus infection of dairy and beef cattle. The virus survives in white blood cells, called lymphocytes. Only about 5% of the cows infected with this blood-borne disease ever develop a clinical disease. If clinical disease is not present, BLV infection may be diagnosed by blood tests (AGID and ELISA) that detect the presence of BLV antibodies. BLV infection does not occur naturally in other species. BLV infection is for life; once an animal is infected, it is virus positive for life.

Bovine Leukosis Virus

Picture of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Brochure Cover

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV)

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus is a disease of goats. Those infected with CAEV may develop arthritis, mastitis, encephalitis, and/or pneumonia. The primary route of transmission is through ingestion of virus-infected colostrum or milk by kids. Contact with the blood of an infected animal can also transmit the disease. Currently there is no vaccine available for CAEV.

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus

Picture of Johne's Disease Brochure Cover

Johne's (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) Disease

Johne's Disease is a chronic intestinal disorder primarily of ruminants. Symptoms include decreased milk productivity, diarrhea and weight loss despite a good appetite. A recent survey of Colorado dairy cattle found a 4% seroprevalance of Johne's Disease among cattle at least 2 years of age (JAVMA 2004 Jul 1, 225(1): 97-101).

Johne's Disease

Picture of Scrapie Susceptibility Testing Brochure Cover


Scrapie is a fatal nervous system disease of sheep and goats and is caused by the same family of infectious agents as Mad Cow Disease. Scrapie is a major concern to the sheep and goat industry, causing significant production losses. Moreover, the presence of scrapie in the United States also limits the export of breeding stock, semen, and embryos.

Scrapie Susceptibility Testing


Picture of Bovine Trichomoniasis Brochure Cover


Trichomoniasis is a venereal disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas foetus. Bovine trichomoniasis is spread by breeding and causes infertility, abortions, and occasionally chronic uterine infection in dairy and beef cattle. Losses include reduced milk production, reduced calf crop, and delayed breeding. Diagnosis of the disease requires demonstration of the organism in the tissue or most frequently in culture. There is not a treatment for Bovine trichomoniasis.

Bovine Trichomoniasis