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Compliance Options and Technical Guidance

The purpose of this page is to provide an accessible electronic library of all guidance and reference documents developed through the CO-RADS project. As new material and information becomes available, this page will be updated to provide the most current information on compliance options and other technical issues associated with radionuclides in drinking water.



There are a number of options available to resolve radionuclide violations, however there are many considerations associated with each of these options. Ultimately, identifying a viable option for a system can be an extreme challenge.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a number of documents available online that will offer general guidance on various compliance options.


Colorado specific guidance on many issues of concern can be found below.

The Phase 3 summary report developed by Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. shows that traditional treatment and disposal methods for radionuclide compliance can be extremely costly. Readers should be aware that there were limitations in certain areas of these evaluations, such as non-treatment options like blending or consolidation, or certain waste handling options such as discharges to wastewater treatment facilities – for additional information on these impacts, please see the presentation materials for the first Phase 4 regional meeting.

Phase 3 Treatment and Disposal Evaluation Summary Report

Executive Summary pdf file
Phase 3 Summary Report pdf file
Appendix A CO-RADS System Information pdf file
Appendix B Radionuclide Risk Assessment and Analysis pdf file
Appendix C Interim Measures and Point of Use pdf file
Appendix D Water Sampling and Travel Plan pdf file
Appendix E Feasible Technology Memo pdf file
Appendix F Worker Exposure Modeling Memo pdf file
Appendix G Bench and Pilot Testing Plan pdf file
Appendix H POU Workshop Slide pdf file pdf file
Appendix I Draft Non-Treatment Options Matrix pdf file
Appendix J Final Bench and Pilot Testing Report pdf file
Appendix K Additional Info Provided in CORADS Reports pdf file
Appendix L EPA Cost Estimates pdf file

Appendix M CORADS Impact on Rates Analysis pdf file
Appendix N Evaporation Basin and Labor Costs pdf file
Appendix O Updated Liquid Residuals Flowchart pdf file
Appendix P Final Residuals Sampling Results pdf file

In light of the high costs for traditional approaches identified in Phase 3, the Water Quality Control Division will continue to work with systems and waste handling agencies in Phase 4 to develop more cost effective alternatives.


Waste streams generated by radionuclide removal processes may fall under the regulatory jurisdiction of multiple program areas within the department, including the Solid Waste, Radiation Management, and Wastewater Permitting Programs. EPA and local health departments may also have jurisdiction over certain waste handling practices. On average, 60 percent of the capital costs estimated in Phase 3 were associated with waste handling basins. For some systems, these basins made up more than 80 percent of estimated capital costs. Alternative disposal options or basin design could provide significant savings. However, it is challenging to identify and address all associated waste handling requirements. The following documents should provide further guidance on this issue.