Text Size
Increase text size
Increase text size

School Violence

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Violence Prevention
Colorado Coalition Against Domestic Violence (CCADV)
  • The Colorado Coalition Against Domestic Violence offers training, technical assistance and other resources to domestic violence programs across the state.
Comprehensive Gang Model
  • In 1987, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) began supporting a research and development project to design a comprehensive approach to reduce and prevent youth gang violence. The initial phase of this project was directed by Dr. Irving Spergel at the University of Chicago. The project concluded in the early 1990s and resulted in the development of the Spergel Model of Gang Intervention and Suppression, later renamed the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model. The OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model (Model) calls for five core strategies to be delivered through an integrated approach from a team of community agencies and organizations. The five strategies are (1) community mobilization; (2) social intervention, including street outreach; (3) provision of opportunities; (4) suppression; and (5) organizational change.
NEW Crime Prevention Research Review: Scared Straight and Other Juvenile Awareness Programs for Preventing Juvenile Delinquency
  • Published March 2014 by COPS — the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services -- the office of the U.S. Department of Justice that advances the practice of community policing in America’s state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies.
  • Programs like "Scared Straight" involve organized visits to prison facilities by juvenile delinquents or children at risk for becoming delinquent. The programs are meant to deter participants from future offending by providing first-hand observations of prison life and interaction with adult inmates. Results of this review indicate that these programs not only fail to deter crime but also actually lead to more offending behavior. Government officials permitting this program need to adopt rigorous evaluation to ensure they are not causing more harm to the very citizens they pledge to protect.
Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools, Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2007-08-U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences
  • This First Look report uses data from the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime. SSOCS is the primary source of school-level data on crime and safety for NCES. Since 1999, it has been administered four times to the principals of nationally representative samples of public primary, middle, high, and combined schools.
Do Health and Education Agencies in the United States Share Responsibility for Academic Achievement and Health? A Review of 25 Years of Evidence About the Relationship of Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Health Behaviors 
  • Published in the Journal of Adolescent Health, January 2013
  • The study found that 96.6% of studies reported statistically significant inverse relationships between health risk behaviors and academic achievement. Health risk behaviors included violence, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors contributing to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy dietary behaviors. The study highlights the importance of leaders in education and health working together to make wise investments in our nation’s school-aged youth that will benefit the entire population.
  • Easy to Read Summary published by the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors
Find Youth Info
Guide for Preventing and Responding to School Violence, 2nd Edition 
  • Published in 2009 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice.
Gun Violence: Prediction, Prevention, and Policy
  • Published in December 2013 by the American Psychological Association (APA)
  • The report summarizes the psychological research that has helped develop evidence-based programs that can prevent violence through both primary and secondary interventions. Primary prevention programs can reduce risk factors for violence in the general population. Secondary prevention programs can help individuals who are experiencing emotional difficulties or interpersonal conflicts before they escalate into violence.
  • Written by a task force composed of psychologists and other researchers, the report synthesizes the available science on the complex underpinnings of gun violence, from gender and culture to gun policies and prevention strategies. The report is divided into two major areas: antecedents to gun violence and “what works” — i.e., tactics and policies that have proven effective in gun violence prediction and prevention.
Injury Prevention: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal for Health Professionals and Others in Injury Prevention
  • Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: a public health approach, a new study by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Background: Gang violence accounted for 20% of homicides in large cities from 2002 to 2006. Preventing gang affiliation (ie, youth who either desire or have gang membership) might reduce subsequent gang activity. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors for gang affiliation; however, little information is available on protective factors.
  • Conclusions: The findings suggest the potential benefit of increasing parental monitoring and coping skills and reducing delinquency, alcohol use and drug use to prevent gang affiliation.
National Gang Center 
National Institute of Justice, Gangs and Gang Crime
  • Learn more here about: gang definitions, gang activity and prevalence, anti-gang strategies, gang membership as a prosecution enhancement, research and evaluation projects on gangs.
  • Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership
    • Published September 2013 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
    • Executive Summary
    • Written by some of the nation’s top criminal justice and public health researchers, Changing Course offers evidence-based principles that can halt the cascading impact of gangs on youth, families, neighborhoods and society at large. The goal of the book (and a separate executive summary publication) is to help policymakers who make decisions about the best use of taxpayer dollars — and practitioners who work in the trenches, such as law enforcement officers, teachers and community services providers — understand what the research says about keeping kids out of gangs.
    • More Information
National Youth Gang Survey 
Office for Victims of Crime (OVC)
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), U.S. Department of Justice
The Path to Violence
  • Video from PBS that first aired in February 2013.
  • This program tells a story about the effective Secret Service threat assessment program that helps schools detect problem behavior in advance and prevent acts of school violence.
  • CSSRC Staff Review, 6/11/14
Promoting Safe Schools and Lessons Learned
Real Crimes in Virtual Worlds: School Violence: Echoes from the Digital Playgrounds
  • Published in December 2013 by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Drexel University, and Drakontas.
  • This report focuses on how threatening behaviors among youth within online video games, virtual worlds, and social networks can pose real-world threats in schools. These online behaviors include bullying, threats, harassment, stalking, and abuse. The report highlights how virtual environments can help law enforcement, school resource officers, and school administrators become aware of real-world criminal intent, offers strategies for detecting and preventing online threats to improve school safety, and provides resources about suspicious or threatening online activities.
Safe Communities Safe Schools, the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV) of the University of Colorado
  • The Safe Communities ~ Safe Schools Initiative offers a variety of instruments, free of charge to Colorado schools, to help administrators better understand their school’s strengths and needs. In addition to our Pre-Planning Assessment Checklists, which contains tools to aid school-community planning teams in identifying areas of strength and weakness that could affect school and community safety, our Barometers of School Safety include school climate surveys as well as a school safety and security assessment.
Safe Schools-Healthy Students Initiative 
  • Grant support program from U.S. Department of Education.
  • Through grants made to local education authorities, the SS/HS Initiative provides schools and communities across the United States with the benefit of enhanced school and community-based services in an effort to strengthen healthy child development, thus reducing violent behavior and substance use.
  • The Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative: A Legacy of Success, published December 2013
    • Presents findings from a national cross-site evaluation of a program that supports collaborative planning and implementation of programs and services to foster safer schools and healthy students.
School Violence Prevention and Student Discipline Manual – Colorado Attorney General’s Office
  • The School Violence Prevention and Student Discipline Manual is prepared by the Colorado Attorney General's Office and distributed to schools in cooperation with the Colorado School Safety Resource Center and the CU Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. The manual addresses the legal issues surrounding reporting, search and seizure, disciplinary actions, and school policies. The manual was updated in January, 2009.
STRYVE: Striving to Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere
  • STRYVE is a guide for communities, states and the country to use in developing and implementing evidence-informed strategies, programs, and policies for stopping violence before it occurs using a public health approach. STRYVE articulates a multidisciplinary, multi-component, and coordinated strategic plan of action to increase the potential effectiveness and efficacy of youth violence prevention.
  • STRYVE Online Training is designed to help individuals, groups, organizations, and communities become acquainted with the key concepts and strategies of youth violence prevention.
Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda 
  • Published February 2013 in the American Psychologist
  • This article outlines four broad yet distinct aspects of the issue of violence against teachers. The magnitude of violence currently directed against kindergarten through Grade 12 (K–12) teachers is described and defined. There is a brief review of the current knowledge about potential predictors of student violence directed against K–12 teachers. Several evidencebased behavioral management strategies to promote safe classrooms and schools are identified. Recommendations to guide a national research agenda for advocacy and policy efforts are offered.
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)  
  • The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) was established in 2002 as an initiative of the Institute for Education Sciences (IES) at the U.S. Department of Education. The WWC is administered by the National Center for Education Evaluation within IES.  The goal of the WWC is to be a resource for informed education decision making. To reach this goal, the WWC identifies studies that provide credible and reliable evidence of the effectiveness of a given practice, program, or policy (referred to as “interventions”), and disseminates summary information and reports on the WWC website.
  • Student Behavior








Web Link Disclaimer: The Colorado School Safety Resource Center (CSSRC) provides links from this site to external websites because of their potential interest or usefulness to the safe and positive school environment, an education community or the general public. It attempts to monitor such sites on a regular basis. However, the CSSRC cannot be responsible for the content of any site external to its own. Further, by linking to other sites, the CSSRC is not endorsing any particular product, practice, service, provider or institution, nor does it necessarily endorse views expressed or facts presented on these sites. In addition, neither the CSSRC nor any of its employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information linked to from this site.